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MaxRange is created and developed by Max Range, and is now associated with the university of Halmstad, Sweden [15]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the academic field. For actual political history, see Political history of the world. Primary topics. Index of politics articles Politics by country Politics by subdivision Political economy Political history Political history of the world Political philosophy.

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Separation of powers Legislature Executive Judiciary Election commission. Related topics. Sovereignty Theories of political behavior Political psychology Biology and political orientation Political organisations Foreign electoral intervention. Main article: history of political thinking. Main article: Social history. In The Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Based on full-time professors in U. Stephen H. Haber , David M. Kennedy, and Stephen D.

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    Historical Thinking in the College Classroom

    Categories : Fields of history Political history. We know that the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7, The controversy and debate is around what factors led the Japanese to bomb Pearl Harbor or whether or not President Roosevelt knew about it in advance. In answering the first question, one can look at both "short-term" and "long-term" causes.

    The "short-term" causes were the immediate factors behind the attack, Japanese isolation, their fear of running out of oil, their frustrations with American demands that they pull their troops out of China. The Japanese wanted to be recognized as a great imperial power like the United States and the European colonial powers, and were constantly frustrated by the way in which the U. Even when one examines, "long-term" causes, one should remember that there was nothing inevitable about the bombing of Pearl Harbor or any other historical event.

    History might have turned out much differently if the US had not moved some of its aircraft carriers unbeknownst to the Japanese before the bombing, which allowed them to survive the attack and continue to threaten the Japanese navy. In short, to be able to engage in historical analysis and interpretation, you should be able to identify the author or source of a piece of evidence and assess its credibility.

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    You should be able to compare and contrast different sets of ideas, values, personalities, behaviors, and institutions. You should be able to differentiate between historical facts and historical interpretations. You should be able to understand that multiple perspectives of the past are possible, even though history is often written from the point of view of winners. You should be able to analyze "cause-and-effect relationships," understanding that many events probably have multiple causes.

    In analyzing "cause-and-effect relationships," you should try to differentiate what happened because of individual action, cultural factors, or pure chance. You should understand that all historical interpretations are tentative and that they might be revised with the discovery of new evidence or by thinking about the problem in a new way. You should be able to evaluate major debates among historians and come to your own conclusions about them. Finally, you should be able to think about how events in the past may be shaping our present. The best way to learn about what history is, is to do or write history yourself.

    You should be able to formulate historical questions, obtain historical data, evaluate the data, contextualize the data, and present your history in a meaningful form. The textbook is a "secondary" source. It is a book that is based on primary source materials or other historical accounts that was written well after the event took place. If you read the section in the textbook on the conquest of Mexico, you will be reading an interpretation of that event.

    The authors believe that certain facts were important in allowing the Spaniards to conquer the Mexicas. They ignore other facts that they do not believe are important. The Mexica sources were written down under Spanish supervision many years after the event. In evaluating the "primary" sources, you should think about who produced the account?

    You should think about what is the evidence of its authenticity, authority, and credibility?

    What does it tell you about the point of view, background, or interests of its author or creator? What else is necessary to construct a useful story, explanation, or interpretation based on the sources. How might you revise what is written in the textbook from what you now know or do you think the textbook interpretation is just fine? One thing that is especially clear in the case of the "Conquest of Mexico" is how little can be said for sure about any of it.

    It is one of the most significant turning points in world history, but all of the main characters had a point of view that shaped their visions of events. This is the stuff historians have to work with, materials that are often full of gaps, contradictory, and messy. Yet for over a thousand years, men and women have struggled with this kind of evidence in imaginative ways to fill in the gaps and craft interpretations that help us to explain our own past. History has been integrally related to political and economic decision-making for centuries.

    Our sense of our past in some ways shapes our sense of identity today. This is why it is so easy to argue about what history is the "right" history. Many individuals believe that we should not teach American students about some of the controversial problems in our country's past slavery, destroying the lives of Native Americans, the treatment of late nineteenth and early twentieth century immigrants from Japan, China, and Mexico, the internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II, the use of atomic weapons, and so forth.

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    Other individuals find greater inclusivity in history to be liberating. What is important is to be able to identify issues and problems in the past and to analyze the interests, values, perspectives, and points of view of all of those involved. One should examine the events of the past and think about what led up to them. What might have been done differently to resolve problems?

    What alternative actions might have been taken? What can we learn about how people made decisions to do the things they did? To answer these questions, you should be able to evaluate the implementation of a decision by analyzing the interests it served, by estimating the position, power, and priorities of each actor involved; by assessing the ethical dimensions of the decision; and by evaluating its costs and benefits from a variety of perspectives. Questionnaire: Why Study History? Corey Prize Raymond J. Cunningham Prize John H. Klein Prize Waldo G. Marraro Prize George L. Mosse Prize John E. Palmegiano Prize James A. Schmitt Grant J.