Besides pedagogic work, she is currently involved in research projects on photocatalysis. She was the president of the organizing committee of JEP conference 3rd European Symposium on Photocatalysis with participants from more than 30 countries. Her expertise includes the preparation and characterization of materials in thin-film and powder form and their role in environmental technologies.
She has published more than scientific articles, 5 patents and holds over citations h-index 26 according to WoS, December He is director of research in the fields of catalysis and water treatment.
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Experts Opinions. Conference Locate. Heart Web Directory. Medivator Web Directory. Sessions Catalysts for fine Chemicals synthesis Supramolecular catalysis and Heterogeneous Catalysis Photocatalysis Photocatalytic reactions in gas-liquid and gas-solid systems and Photoreactors Electrocatalysis and bioelectrocatalysis Conversion of alkanes and alkenes on acid-base catalysts Catalysis for renewable sources Process Systems Engineering Enzyme and Microbial Technology Fluid and Particle Mechanics Industrial Chemical Technology and Catalysis Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis Advanced synthesis, Catalytic systems, new catalyst designing Catalysis and Energy Nanostructural materials for environmental catalysis Surface Chemistry and Colloidal Phenomena.
Lee D. Morocco View Biography. So for several reasons in the present form this is not the basis of a practical NOx control system. It examined the protonation of zeolites and their copper exchanged counterparts using Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectroscopy; temperature programmed desorption TPD and theoretical calculations. FTIR and TPD experiments showed that there are three types of surface ammonia species: those coordinated to copper centres, those coordinated to extra framework aluminium atoms, and ammonium cations at Br0nsted sites.
There was reasonable agreement between calculated and observed infrared absorptions confirming their assignments, and it was concluded that isolated coordinated ammonia at copper sites reacted quickly compared to ammonium ions at Br0nsted sites.
However, when coordination sites are present the ammonium cations react more quickly, and it is thought that this is where ammonia is stored. Twenty years or so ago there were in-field problems with some TWCs that were prone to deactivation due to phosphorous poisoning derived from lubrication oil,and this was shown to be due to cerium phosphate formation and hence a decreased oxygen storage capacity OSC.
The next paper, from Angel os Efstathiou University of Cyprus ,returned to this topic. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS showed a major decrease in surface percentage of Ce IV that in itself goes a long way to explain the. For the 'poisoned' samples at a particular temperature composition again had little effect, but there was less than half the amount of exchangeable oxygen.
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All of these data refer to the mixed oxides themselves, and this reviewer believes that a similar study is needed with materials containing pgms, especially rhodium and palladium. The oxidation of methane in exhaust gas is becoming increasingly important, and this is usually best done over a palladium-based catalyst. The nobility of palladium is such that it exists under reaction conditions either as oxide or metal depending on the catalyst formulation and the operating temperature, and it is usually considered that the oxide form is more active than is the metallic form.
A density functional theory DTF and surface X-ray diffraction study from Henrik Gronbeck Chalmers University of Technology Sweden and colleagues at Lund University, Sweden, focused on the dissociation of methane on the surface and concluded that PdO and Pd metal have the highest activities, although there is no immediately obvious way in which this helps with the practical problem of lowering the temperature needed for methane oxidation. The last paper in this session was from Davide Ferri etal.
The element specific results are profound and provide time resolved information about parameters such as oxidation state, coordination environments, crystallinity and phase composition under conditions close to real world operating conditions, for instance of TWCs. The results presented included alternate exposure of palladium and rhodium to CO and NOx. Rhodium remained metallic under CO but was partially oxidised by NO. In contrast when palladium was exposed to CO. This contributes to the debate about palladium surface carbide formation.
Clearly these new techniques will provide tremendous insight into pgm-catalysed reactions taking place in automotive pollution control systems in the future.
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In this,the penultimate session,there were three papers of general interest. This has been done for a variety of catalysts and it has been shown that the resonance frequencies and 'Q' linked half-height absorption widths can be related to meaningful catalyst properties. For instance, the sharp resonance of a fully oxidised TWC were shifted down about 0. Similarly the sharp resonance of an empty soot filter gradually shifted down frequency and broadened as it was loaded with soot, and the amount of ammonia on an SCR catalyst could be monitored.
However, the NOx-trapping catalysts do not appear to be amenable to this technique. Already one instrument is commercially available from General Electric, USA and it will be interesting to see if this gains acceptance in the industry. The second paper was from Akira Obuchi National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology AIST , Japan , and was about the use of a heat exchanger to enhance the operating temperature associated with exothermic reactions.
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Exhaust gas was heated by effluent evolved from sequential catalytic oxidation,particulate filtration and ammonia SCR after urea solution injection. The potentially serious problem associated with the development of. These changes were attributed to the oxidation state of the palladium - metal or oxide. At higher temperatures the palladium was not reoxidised to palladium oxide, in keeping with the known thermodynamics of palladium oxide prevailing under such conditions.
Lambda scan experiments showed that the effects of increasing the cycle period depended on the available OSC present,and that during long cycle periods there was insufficient OSC to complete the oxidations of HCs and CO to water and carbon dioxide. Hydrogen was then formed from carbon monoxide via the water gas shift reaction, Equation x.
Increasing the water content increased the amount of hydrogen formed under rich conditions, and inhibited methane conversion under lean conditions. The presence of NOx inhibited methane conversion under lean conditions. Interestingly these experimental results might indicate that a partially reduced palladium oxide surface is a very active phase, as suggested by some surface science studies.
The final session was on particulate control. The first of six papers was from Alexander Yu. Base metal systems of this type are usually sensitive to sulfur poisoning but no mention of such sensitivities was mentioned. There followed a presentation from Oliver Krocher Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland on ammonia SCR reactions over the same carbon black that was used in the previous study and also actual diesel soot.
A particularly interesting feature was the consideration given to the processes taking place on the carbon surface, and how for instance hydrogen cyanide might be formed from surface carboxylic acids via the formation and dehydration of surface amides. One possible mechanism is shown in Equations xiv - xvi :. This material, as shown by a transmission electron microscopy TEM image Figure 2 , has metallic silver cores surrounded by. The preparation of this material involves ammonia coprecipitation of cerium III and silver I nitrates under neutral conditions in which silver ammine is reduced by cerium III to silver metal and ceria, as shown in Equations xvii - xix.
An unusual variant on the silver mirror reaction! And of course anyone carrying out this procedure should be aware of the explosive nature of silver nitride that can inadvertently be formed from ammonical silver nitrate. As discussed previously the PN standards for gasoline DI engines are going to become the same as those for diesel cars fitted with filters within Euro 6 legislation. There will be a transition period starting in , with 6 x particles km-1, and then in the limit will be tightened to 6 x particles km This will force DI gasoline cars to be fitted with some form of filter.
There is however concern that the additional backpressure caused by a filter will be detrimental to the turbocharger efficiency of the small downsized engines that are capable of providing the fuel economy necessary for the low carbon dioxide emissions requirements. A presentation by Stephanie Spiess et al. The NOx conversion was improved compared with the series arrangement, and over , km the PN emissions were better than the required 6 x particles km Importantly, there was no measurable impact on fuel consumption or carbon dioxide emissions, highlighting the likelihood of this technology being optimised and implemented on European gasoline powered cars in the future.
The penultimate paper from Bengt Andersson Chalmers University of Technology was on the reactivity of different soots, especially towards oxidation. Soot from gasoline DI, gasoline port fuelled, ethanol port fuelled and diesel engines were compared with the behaviour of a commonly used synthetic soot. A number of differences were identified, and particularly interesting was the variation of activation energy with conversion although the range was within that previously reported for diesel soot.
NO2 oxidation is different, perhaps because the reaction rate is so rapid that diffusion effects are important. The final presentation from Marcial Valencia et al. Both cordierite and silicon carbide filters were used, and data were collected on a commercial 1. Again this work showed that ceria can catalyse the oxidation of NO to NO2. It is a pity that a. There are concerns about the lack of significant air quality improvements in parts of Europe over recent years, and increasingly stringent standards and other measures will be introduced to correct this situation.