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Reeham Kabli. Fatimah Alamri , Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Rather than leading students to pure memorization, providing a rich environment where meaningful communication takes place is desired.

Spoken Language SOW for KS3

By using this method in ESL classes, students will have the opportunity of communicating with each other in the target language. This can occur when students collaborate in groups to achieve a goal or to complete a task. Be aware of the differences between second language and foreign language learning contexts. Give students practice with both fluency and accuracy.

Key Stage 4 Spoken English

Provide opportunities for students to talk by using group work or pair work and limited teacher talk. Plan speaking tasks that involve negotiation for meaning. Design classroom activities that involve guidance and practice in both transactional and interactional speaking. Meaning must come first: if children do not understand the spoken language, they cannot learn it. It may be helpful to begin with training teachers in interactive book reading techniques and encouraging them to set aside time for practicing this in the classroom, because interactive book reading is a slightly more constrained environment than, for example, a lesson about the writing process.

After teachers show competence with the procedures of interactive book reading, mentors can encourage them to incorporate these practices into everyday conversations with their students.

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Explicit vocabulary instruction may represent another area where mentors can support teachers of DHH students. Mentors can remind teachers of the value and necessity of explicit vocabulary instruction for all students and DHH students in particular. They may also help teachers select words to target and plan to incorporate them into daily conversations. One major limitation is that this study only examined the effect of teacher talk for DHH children acquiring spoken English. It is equally important to examine effective teacher talk for DHH children who are acquiring sign language as well as bimodal and bilingual children.

There is some suggestion that these findings may generalize to all DHH children. Clearly this is an area that needs further research. A second limitation is that this study was observational and correlational, and therefore, we cannot draw firm conclusions about causation.


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Although the claim that reformulating and explicitly teaching vocabulary can improve DHH children's language abilities is supported by theory e. For example, it is possible that good teaching or specific teaching philosophies e. Indeed, there was a great deal of variability in the rates at which teachers used each behavior, and this study was not designed to examine potential causes of that variation.

The variation could be merely the result of naturally occurring variations in the supportiveness of adult communication Cabell et al. Variation may also have been related to different teacher training or familiarity with the needs of DHH students. However, this study was designed to examine the language that DHH children encounter in their everyday school settings, and these settings include adults with various backgrounds interacting with multiple children at a time.

Future research should examine which factors predict more supportive language input from teachers and what methods are effective in improving teacher input. A well-designed intervention tested in a randomized controlled trial would be a good next step. Third, we could only reach limited conclusions about the relation between teacher talk and gains in morphosyntax knowledge.

The HLM analyses suggested that the residuals associated with our morphosyntax measure were not normally distributed, so our morphosyntax analyses may not be reliable. This was unfortunate because the DHH children were very delayed in their morphosyntax, more than 2 SD s below hearing norms.


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  • Future research would benefit from using a larger sample size that permits more complex analyses, as well as using additional instruments that may provide a fuller picture of language gains. Alternative instruments for measuring child language may be particularly important, as other researchers have also found that preschool teachers' language support practices and classroom-based language interventions may have little effect on children's syntax and morphosyntax knowledge Cabell et al.

    Other assessments or measures of language such as syntactic diversity in a language sample or criterion-referenced tests may highlight different gains Piasta et al. This may be especially true for wait time.

    This study provides promising information about the teacher talk practices in DHH children's elementary classrooms and the relationship of those practices to children's language gains. Positive practices to support child language seem to be used in most classrooms, although the rates of these behaviors vary. Reformulation and explicit vocabulary instruction may be particularly effective in predicting young DHH children's language gains.

    Future research can examine which aspects of these behaviors are most impactful and whether training teachers in these behaviors can be causally linked to practically significant gains in child language skills. The content of this article does not represent views of the Institute or the U. Department of Education. Codes are in square brackets after teacher turns. All names have been changed. Some excerpts have been lightly edited for brevity. Teacher and students are discussing a wordless picture book. Teacher: Give me a sentence for this side of the page. Teacher: Who remembers what this is called?

    Elena: I know. Priscilla: Apron. Teacher: What's she tying around, Elena? Elena: Um, I think it is…a, she tying it around because you can't get your clothes…. Teacher: Well, that's what it's for, but it has a name.

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    Teacher: Apron. It's an apron and it keeps your clothes clean, you're right. Priscilla: My mom asks me if she needs help with a special thing. Teacher: So do you wear an apron when you're cooking? Priscilla: Yeah. It's pink. Teacher: What about this side, Mason? What's happening right here, what is she doing? Mason: She is getting a book. Teacher: She's getting a book. What, what book do you think she's getting?

    Mason: Um, pancake book. Teacher and students are composing a story about a picture. Teacher: Oh, this is gonna be a good story. Caroline: The frog and the princess are gonna kiss. Or the frog will turn a prince. Teacher: Tell me, the frog and the princess are going to kiss. Caroline: The frog and the princess are going to kiss. Teacher: So…? Caroline: So the frog will will turn a prince.