For the Viet Minh the Geneva Accords were a gamble. The Viet Minh controlled much more than half of Vietnam in ; when it allowed the country to be divided approximately in half, it was giving up a great deal of territory south of the seventeenth parallel that had been under Viet Minh control for years, exchanging this for only a small area under French control north of the seventeenth parallel.
On the other hand, if the elections were actually held as promised in , the Viet Minh appeared certain to win; it had far more political strength than all other political groups in Vietnam put together.
Geneva Conference to resolve problems in Asia begins
Under considerable pressure from China and the Soviet Union, both of which wanted to reduce international tension at this time, the Viet Minh decided to accept the Geneva Accords, and gamble by giving up territory in the short run in order to win control of all of Vietnam in The division of Vietnam was supposed to be purely temporary. Who was likely to prevent the two sections from being rejoined in ? The French had given up hope of retaining control in any part of Vietnam. The United States and the State of Vietnam had made it clear at the Geneva Conference that they did not like the results of the conference, which recognized Communist control of North Vietnam immediately, and created likelihood that the Communists would take the South in two years.
A great many books say that the US promised that it would not violate the Accords. This is an error based on careless misreading of the US declaration at the final session of the Geneva Conference, July 21, However, the State of Vietnam was virtually powerless, and the influence of the United States was quite limited.
The American leaders themselves were by no means confident that they would be able to prevent the reunification of Vietnam from occurring on schedule in Enlai notes that his suggestion to invite the resistance governments in Laos and Cambodia to attend the conference produced debate. Zhou Enlai reports mainly on the second session of the Indochina issue.
Participants are divided on the issue of a ceasefire. Enlai wants to counter the enemy plots with propaganda, but in the meantime thinks it would be better if some captured senior officers issued statements concerning the "humanist measures" being taken by their captors - but not by force.
Zhou Enlai reports on Eden's proposals at the tenth session on Korea.
Eden focuses on elections based on the population distributions in North and South Korea, international supervision, and foreign troop withdrawal. Zhou expresses concerns for the French proposal on Indochina and states that China supports the North Vietnamese proposal.
Zhou and Eden agree that a military armistice should be decided on, although they disagree on specific issues surrounding an armistice. During the fourth session, representatives from Russia and France spoke on their positions on the armistice in Indochina. Language Original language.
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Available translation Any English Korean. The U. Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai pointed out at the Conference: The withdrawal of all foreign forces from Korea is a prerequisite to free expression of will by the Korean people in the absence of any outside interference during their national elections; the elections in Korea should not be placed under the supervision of the United Nations which is a belligerent party to the Korean War; nevertheless, China agrees to international supervision over the elections; he proposed that in order to assist the all-Korean council in holding all-Korean free elections in accordance with the all-Korean electoral law without any foreign interference, a neutral nations supervision commission be set up to supervise the elections.
By 15 June it already seemed hardly possible for the conference participants to reach any agreement due to their differences of principle over how to settle the Korean question peacefully.
BBC ON THIS DAY | 21 | Peace deal ends Indo-China war
The DPRK, China and the Soviet Union made a final effort and made proposals in favor of a peaceful resolution of the Korean question so as to break the stalemate. The United States, however, took the lead in opposing the above-mentioned proposals.
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Countries whose troops formed the? UN Forces? In such circumstances, Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai made a final effort.
He pointed out that the U. Even so, the participating countries at the conference still had the obligations to reach some kind of agreement on the peaceful settlement of the Korean question. He proposed that? Though this declaration was accepted by the overwhelming majority of participants at the conference, it was not adopted by the conference due to refusal by U. In this way, the discussion of the Korean question at the Geneva Conference ended without reaching any agreement.